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Monday, July 14, 2014

JSF 1.2: Project Woodstock Button Facet Table

I was going through some old code examples. I found one created with Sun Studio Creator. Yes, it was very old.

The original example was developed by Winston Prakash.

I did some updates to Project Woodstock from the original Project Rave, and came up with a pretty new example page.

The project can be downloaded here: ButtonHeaderTable

Note: You will need to use NetBeans 6.5.1, or 6.7.1 to run it.

Sunday, July 13, 2014

JSF 1.2: Visual Web Pack (Project Woodstock) Java Persistence API Example

Master-Detail Example
This is some example code that I have for a Visual Web Pack (VWP) project that demonstrates some complex data table examples.

I often fantasize about being able to get the band back together and make Woodstock 2.0. Here is an example of why. This was complex for JSF 1.2.

The code can be downloaded from: vwpjpaexamples

I would strongly recommend using NetBeans 6.5.1 to build and run the example project.

Thursday, July 10, 2014

A simple practical "pragmatic" Formatter for java.util.logging.Logger

I have quite a trove of code examples I have collected over the years. Here is another example of a Formatter used with the java.util.logging.Logger to generate a standard output.

PragmaticFormatter.java


The next question is how do you use it? Easy enough... here is an example for you. The code for the project is located here: pragmatic-logging-formatter

JSF 2.x Tip of the Day: Encoding Text for XML

I have a simple method to encode text to display inside an XML page, or to use inside other XML/JS for example SyntaxHighlighter.

XMLEncode


Creating a BLOB Image Table

I am going through some old code while I wait for my Windows VM to update. I came across some code to create an image BLOB table on MySQL. I thought I would publish it before deleting it from my system. It might be helpful to someone.

CreateImagesTable.java


cat: How do I list the contents of a text file?

I was asked by a new developer how you would cat the contents of a file in Java. I thought for a second and here is what I came up with. I thought I would just share it. Note: This is my 30s answer, and probably could be cleaned up.

Cat.java


Monday, June 16, 2014

Clickjacking and Java EE: Some Practical Solutions

©Technology Personalized

Introduction

What is Clickjacking?

Clickjacking, also known as a "UI redress attack", is when an attacker uses multiple transparent or opaque layers to trick a user into clicking on a button or link on another page when they were intending to click on the the top level page. Thus, the attacker is "hijacking" clicks meant for their page and routing them to other another page, most likely owned by another application, domain, or both.
Using a similar technique, keystrokes can also be hijacked. With a carefully crafted combination of stylesheets, iframes, and text boxes, a user can be led to believe they are typing in the password to their email or bank account, but are instead typing into an invisible frame controlled by the attacker.

What does this mean for Java EE developers?
 
We don't operate inside of a vacuum. HTML/JS technologies are the backbone of most EE applications. This makes them subject to this kind of attack just like any other HTML/JS technologies. In fact, we often abstract away a lot of the underlying HTML/JS from the developer, this can make us more susceptible to this kind of attack unless we are cognizant and diligent in applying defenses.

Fortunately, there are a number of simple things that developers can do to add additional layers of security to their applications in an unobtrusive way. Those methods include adding X-Frame-Options, and frame busting.

X-Frame-Options

The first solution is to add a header to our pages to offer a browser a "suggestion" on how to handle pages that contain frames. The options include DENY, SAMEORIGIN, and ALLOWFROM. The latter is a new addition and may not be supported. The DENY option advises the browser not to allow any content to be displayed if it comes inside a frame. The SAMEORIGIN option advises the browser to only display framed content, if the content is coming from the same origin as the original request. The ALLOWFROM option takes a parameter (URI) that advises that content from a given URI can be framed. As previously noted, this may not be supported on all browsers. You will need to examine your target browser for compliance. Make no assumptions about your users though. They will use a browser of convenience. The implementation of adding the header is simple. The OWASP has come-up with a simple filter to handle the X-Frame-Options.

Frame Busting

The second solution is simple too. It involves using CSS/JS to do something called "frame busting". There are a number of examples on the web. I would recommend that you examine them carefully. I have found that the code I use is simple, elegant, and does not leave a lot of room for attack vectors. This does not imply that it is invulnerable, but does provide a good defense.

In the frame busting method I use, the CSS sets the style attribute body{display:none !important;} on the <body /> tag of the page as soon as the page is loaded. This is followed by a JS function that checks to see if the page is inside a <frame />, if it is then it attempts to set the body as the top location. Thus it breaks the frame. If it is successful, it removes the body{display:none !important;}styling. Otherwise, the <body /> of page will not display. Simple.

Examples

I have created a NetBeans Maven project on Bitbucketclickjacking-examples

The examples include comments and instructions to see the various issues, and possible solutions. Examples include HTML, JSF, and JSP pages. These examples were developed on GlassFish and tested on Apache Tomcat. The code for frame busting is included below for reference using JSF.

Frame Busting Code



References

Thursday, June 12, 2014

JSF 2.2 Tip of the Day: Hidden Field Validation

Hidden Mines

Introduction

How often do you have validators on your hidden fields? I recently performed a security audit of an application that did not have validators associated with the hidden fields on the page. I suspect that the out of sight, out of mind mentality prevailed. Admittedly, I have often short circuited some development and put hidden fields in a JSF page without a validator. My expectation is that the data in the field would be used to provide information that may be needed by the application. However, if these fields have setters... and the results are stored in a database... I think you get the picture.

Methodology

I decided to create a more complex than really necessary example to show how to validate a <h:inputHidden /> field. In the example, you can enter names into an <h:inputText /> which will use JavaScript to update the hidden field. The validation will be activated on form submission. Additionally, a value change listener will update the planet name, and update the planet to the new planet. The validation will prevent putting in planets that don't exist in the enum for current Planets. You can confirm this by entering a bogus name, or poor Pluto that was kicked out of the planetary club.

Code

The code for this example was developed using NetBeans 8.0 IDE on GlassFish 4+ and Apache Tomcat 8+ using JSF 2.2 (Mojarra).

The code for the project can be downloaded from Bitbuckethidden-field-validation


Planets.java



PlanetValidator.java



IndexBean.java



index.xhtml


Thursday, May 01, 2014

JSF 2.2 Tip of the Day: JavaScript Popup Window with Dynamic URL Link

Introduction

There are times when you need to have a JavaScript popup window that opens to another URL based on user input.  The JavaScript is usually added to the onclick event on the JSF component. The dynamic link in JSF is more difficult to accomplish since binding the onclick using Expression Language (EL) is determined at page rendering time. As a result, this means that the JavaScript is not dynamic. As a result, the link is not dynamic either.

A Solution

I have created a project that has three examples that demonstrate the different types of JSF links including the dynamic link. The last example includes <f:param /> elements that are appended to the dynamic URL that is generated.

The dynamic example still uses the onclick event, but the JSF action performs a redirect of the newly opened window. Additionally, and of the parameters that are added to the JSF component are converted to query parameters and appended to the redirect URL.

The Apache Maven project created with NetBeans is located on BitBucket here: jsf-link-examples

The project was tested on GlassFish 4 using Mojarra  JSF 2.2, but the technique should work on other application servers and JSF 2.x versions.

Index.xhtml



IndexBean.java


Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and Playing with JSoup

Introduction

I have used Beautiful Soup with Python in the past for screen scraping. I was immediately excited at the possibilities. JSoup is a Java API for extracting data, and manipulating the DOM in HTML.
jsoup implements the WHATWG HTML5 specification, and parses HTML to the same DOM as modern browsers do.
I did a quick proof of concept just to see what it would do with my "dirty" code.

It results in an interesting output that could be useful if used properly. If you put in garbage, you will get "less" garbage out. It is better than nothing.

I decided that this still could be really useful especially combined with Hibernate Validators and JSF.

Hibernate Validator - @SafeHtml

I was looking at the Hibernate Validators to see about cleaning up some input from users to prevent XSS issues. I noticed that there was a validator called @SafeHtml(whitelistType=, additionalTags=, additionalTagsWithAttributes=). It uses the JSoup HTML parser.

Alas, I am full of sorrow. I can not seem to get the <code>@SafeHtml</code> annotation to work. GlassFish vomits and complains it can not find it. I even tried to add it to every lib directory in GlassFish without success. Failing to succeed, I tried Tomcat 8 next. Again, nothing but bitterness and disappointment. It just will not get picked up.

I tried looking for a working example of the validator, and didn't find any that worked. I am not sure of the what is going on, but if I can't figure it out. I imagine I am not alone. I just blog about it. ;-)

Undeterred

Well I decided that I didn't need Hibernate anyway! I feel like I should be in Aesop's Fables. I mentioned my Proof of Concept (POC) earlier. I figured I would look at trying to remove some <script /> tags from my code and even encoded them too to see what it would do. The whole point here is to help prevent XSS.

Here is my Apache Maven project on BitBucket: jsoup-cleaner
 
Note: See the actual code for a more complete representation of the actual code I am trying to strip. The Syntaxhighlighter is having issues with the nested script tags. The same applies to the output.

I was surprised by the result actually. It stripped out the <script /> tags, but totally missed the encoded tags. That is a major issue.

Improvements

I was looking for some solutions for the encoded JavaScript issue when I discovered a blog post called Jersey Cross-Site Scripting XSS Filter for Java Web Apps.

This was not exactly what I needed, but it did contain a method which used JSoup and another framework called ESAPI. Enterprise Security API (ESAPI) was developed by OWASP to enhance the security of Enterprise applications. OWASP has a lot more than this framework.  ESAPI can strip out the encoded bits to help prevent XSS.
I shamelessly used the following method from the blog post.
This does effectively remove any encoded <script /> tags from the output. It does not however prevent errors in judgement on the part of the developer. For example taking the results of the output and using them directly in an HTML JavaScript attribute like onmouseover, or onclick.

I created an example project called XSS Scripter's Delight which I demonstrated at the Greenville Java Users Group. It demonstrates what happens when you don't validate inputs from users. The name is satirical, but does demonstrate in a non-malicious way what you can do if you are not careful.

The Apache Maven project developed with NetBeans can be found on Bitbucket here: xss-scripters-delight.